Pectus carinatum and Pectus Excavatum are serious skeletal deformities that may require corrective surgery. Pectus carinatum is when the sternum and ribs protrude outward, meaning that the chest wall is held rigidly outward. Pectus excavatum is when the sternum and rib cage grow abnormally, producing a sunken-in or caved-in appearance of the chest. Both deformities, apart from causing mild to severe medical problems, may also damage the sufferer’s self esteem from a cosmetic self-image standpoint. The Reverse Nuss procedure works for pectus excavatum repair, and can also mend pectus carinatum.